Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis) Science Article 1
We evaluated the impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of water. We measured fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and aeromonas spp. in the gull droppings and the number of fecal coliforms in the water prior to and after attracting these birds to the beach with food. Gulls can contribute to the bacteriological degradation of recreational water.
BENOIT LEVESQUE, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Apr. 1993, p. 1228-1230