|Genus||Species||subspecies||Breeding Range||Breeding Range 2||Non Breeding Range|
|Turdus||iliacus||EU||c, w||to n AF|
of the continent, which constitutes >50% of its global wintering range. Insufficient
information was available to assess the species’s status using wintering population
data, but its European breeding population is extremely large (>16,000,000 pairs),
and was stable between 1970-1990. Breeding populations in most countries (including
Russia) were stable or increased during 1990-2000, and the species probably remained
Rather small, slight, restless thrush, with striped head and spots on underbody, red-chestnut underwing and flanks combine with rather dark upperparts to provide rather dark, distinctive but not diagnostic appearance.
Adult has chest, most of flanks, and sides of belly well marked, but rear flands and vent noticeably white. Immature has less obvious rufous flanks and fuller pattern of spots and streaks.
Silhouette and action in flight recall Starling. Commonest call distinctive. Sexes similar, some seasonal variation.
Listen to the sound of Redwing
Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto
|wingspan min.:||33||cm||wingspan max.:||35||cm|
|size min.:||19||cm||size max.:||23||cm|
|incubation min.:||12||days||incubation max.:||13||days|
|fledging min.:||8||days||fledging max.:||13||days|
4-6 eggs, incubation 12-13 days, by female only, but male may enter nest when female leaves and sit or stand over eggs.
For surface items, usually pecks at it immediately, though may first pause briefly to cock head on one side, occasionally makes more than one peck.
For subsurface prey in hard ground, stops near potential prey, hesitates, often cocking head on one side and sometimes taking short step backwards or sideways, then stabs downwards with bill.
This thrush has a widespread distribution in boreal regions of Eurasia. It inhabits also sub-arctic regions and alpine regions. The birds of northern Europe are wintering from the British Isles to the Mediterranean region and Morocco. The total European population is estimated at 5-7.5 million breeding pairs, and fluctuates according to the severity of climatic conditions in winter
Autumn movement out of Sweden and Norway occurs late September to mid-November, sporadically to December. Departure from Tomsk (south-central Siberia) starts at end of August and a few remain to late October. Arrives in France from late September, weather and feeding conditions there determining when birds move on to Iberia: may reach Spain and Portugal in November, but in some years not until January. Return passage begins in February, takes place mainly March-April, continuing into May in north. Lack of fixed wintering areas is a notable feature of Redwing?s migration. Only a few ringing recoveries demonstrate year-to-year winter site-fidelity, and there are many to show that birds may winter in widely different localities in different winters, e.g. many birds ringed in Britain in winter have been recovered in subsequent winters in Italy, Greece, and localities even further to south and east.