European Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Science Article 4
Many wild birds are parasitised by organisms that afflict domestic animals particularly poultry, and even man. Perhaps the best examples are the encephalomyelitis viruses which can kill domestic animals and man, but which have little or no effect on the bird natural hosts3. Large numbers of birds live in close association with mm and his animals and it is perhaps surprising that the part that birds play in the dissemination of disease’ has not been studied more closely. Keymer17 18 brought together in 1958 much of the information on bird diseases from numerous scientific journals, as did Halloran12 in 1955. […].
William Threlfall, Bull. Wildlife Disease Assoc. Vol. 3, April, 1967