ENERGY EXPENDITURE BY FREE-LIVING DIPPERS (CINCLUS CINCLUS) IN WINTER

White-throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus) Science Article 3

abstract

We measured daily energy expenditure (DEE) of free-living Dippers (Cinclus cinclus) during winter, using the doubly-labelled water (DLW) technique. DEE was estimated as 206 kJd-1 by this method, compared to 194 kJd-l using time-activity budgets combined with laboratory estimates of metabolic costs

D. M. BRYANT et al, The Condor 87:177-186

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