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Feb 28 2012

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Glossy Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus lathami)

Glossy Black Cockatoo

Glossy Black Cockatoo

[order] PSITTACIFORMES | [family] Cacatuidae | [latin] Calyptorhynchus lathami | [authority] Temminck, 1807 | [UK] Glossy Black Cockatoo | [FR] Cacatoes de Latham | [DE] Braunkopf-Kakadu | [ES] Cacatua Lustrosa | [NL] Bruine Raafkaketoe | [copyright picture] Graeme Chapman

Subspecies

Genus Species subspecies Region Range
Calyptorhynchus lathami AU e Australia
Calyptorhynchus lathami erebus ec Queensland
Calyptorhynchus lathami halmaturinus Kangeroo I.
Calyptorhynchus lathami lathami e Australia

Genus

The genus Calyptorhynchus is endemic to Australia. It includes, in addition to the glossy black-cockatoo C. lathami, the red-tailed black-cockatoo C. magnificus, and the C. funereus complex, containing between one and four species of white-tailed and yellow-tailed black-cockatoos. The generic name Calyptorhynchus (?hidden bill?) reflects the fact that members of this genus can fan their cheek feathers forward so that they cover the base of the bill. The members of the Calyptorhynchus genus are not strictly arboreal except for the the gloss black-cockatoo, probably because of their more varied diets. In the genus only the female incubates and broods. They are all mostly black in colour, and the taxa may be differentiated partly by size and partly by small areas of red, grey and yellow plumage especially in the tail feathers. It is the largest genus of the “dark cockatoo” subfamily Calyptorhynchinae which now is recognized to contain also the other sexually dichromatic species

Physical charateristics

C.l. lathami: male-head, neck and underparts red/brown; back and wings black; centre tail feathers black, side tail feathers with red band near end. Bill grey. Eye dark brown. Female-yellow feathers on head and neck; red tail band suffused with yellow and bisected by narrow black bars. Bill grey/horn coloured. C.l. halmaturinus: both adults similar to lathami but bill larger. C.l. erebus: both adults like lathami but bill smaller.


wingspan min.: 0 cm wingspan max.: 0 cm
size min.: 46 cm size max.: 50 cm
incubation min.: 29 days incubation max.: 31 days
fledging min.: 60 days fledging max.: 100 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 1  
      eggs max.: 3  

Range

Australasia : East Australia. This species is found in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Subspecies erebus is found in east-central Queensland; subspecies lathami has a patchy distribution in Queensland, Victoria, and King Island, Bass Strait; subspecies halmaturinus is now restricted to Kangaroo Island.

Habitat

Found around Casuarina or Allocasuarina trees. Also prefers eucalyptus woodland in high ranges. Occurs in riverine woodland, dense forest, semi-arid woods, coastal forest, wet and dry sclerophyll forest and brigalow scrub.

Reproduction

Glossy Black-cockatoos require large tree hollows in both living and dead trees for nesting and must compete with other hollow-dependent mammals and birds for a suitable nesting hollow. The female lays a single egg which is incubated for about a month by the female only. The young fledge after 2-3 months.

Feeding habits

Glossy Black-cockatoos feed almost exclusively on the seeds of Allocasuarina species. They use their strong bill to extract seeds by crushing cones held in their claws. Occasionally they may eat insect larvae and have been observed feeding on seeds from some eucalypts, angophoras, acacias and hakeas. In coastal and tablelands areas preferred feed trees are Forest Oak (Allocasuarina torulosa) and Black Oak (Allocasuarina littoralis). Additionally, there is some evidence that the coastal species Horsetail She-oak (Casuarina equisetifolia) is occasionally foraged by Glossy Blackcockatoos. Further west on the tablelands and western slopes additional Allocasuarina and Casuarina species are used by this species. These include the Drooping She-oak (Allocasuarina verticillata), Belah (Casuarina cristata) and C. pauper. Within the northwest cypress/ironbark forests the shrubby Allocasuarina species A.gymnanthera and A. diminuta are thought to be particularly important, although other Casuarina and Allocasuarina species are also known to be food resources.

Video Glossy Black Cockatoo

httpv://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8QfX85RmOwo

copyright: Geoffrey Dabb


Conservation

This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Most habitat clearance occurred in the 19th century, although, on the mainland, the species remains threatened by clearance of habitat for agriculture and residential development, degradation of habitat by burning, and the suppression of vegetation regeneration by grazing stock and rabbits. Fragmentation of habitat, especially when associated with agriculture, leads to the penetration of other native species from more open habitats which then compete for hollows. Illegal trapping for the bird trade may be a localised problem. However, in some parts of its range the area of mature food trees may be increasing. The population is suspected to be declining overall as the largest subpopulation, lathami, is declining slowly throughout its range. However sub species erebus is thought to be increasing and subspecies halmaturinus is increasing as a result of conservation efforts on Kangaroo island.
Glossy Black Cockatoo status Least Concern

Migration

Resident, but may move locally after breeding. Small groups following fruting trees in a defined locality, usually in small groups.

Distribution map

Glossy Black Cockatoo distribution range map

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