«

»

Jun 08 2011

Print this Post

Cocoa Thrush (Turdus fumigatus)

Cocoa Thrush

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Turdidae | [latin] Turdus fumigatus | [UK] Cocoa Thrush | [FR] Grive des Cacaos | [DE] Kakaodrossel | [ES] Tordo Acanelado | [NL] Cacao-lijster

Subspecies

Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range
Turdus fumigatus SA Amazonia
Turdus fumigatus aquilonalis
Turdus fumigatus bondi
Turdus fumigatus fumigatus
Turdus fumigatus orinocensis
Turdus fumigatus personus

Physical charateristics

The Cocoa Thrush is 22-24 cm long. It is dark rufous brown above and paler rufous brown below. There are five poorly defined races, differing mainly in the brightness of the plumage. Sexes are similar, but young birds are duller, having the scalloped underparts common in immature thrushes.

Listen to the sound of Cocoa Thrush

[audio:http://www.aviflevoland.nl/sounddb/C/Cocoa Thrush.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 0 cm wingspan max.: 0 cm
size min.: 22 cm size max.: 24 cm
incubation min.: 12 days incubation max.: 13 days
fledging min.: 13 days fledging max.: 13 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 2  
      eggs max.: 3  

Range

South America : North, Northeast Amazonia, North Colombia to Trinidad, Lesser Antilles in Grenada and St. Vincent.

Habitat

The habitat of this large thrush is dense forest. Inhabiting the interior and edges of forests, especially marshy areas and varzeas, it may also appear in cocoa fields and adjacent clearings.

Reproduction

The nest is a lined bulky cup of twigs low in a tree or treefern. Two to three reddish-blotched greenish-blue eggs are laid and incubated by the female for about 13 days to hatching. The young then fledge in another 13-15 days.

Feeding habits

The Cocoa Thrush mainly feeds on or near the ground on insects, especially ants, other invertebrates and some berries. Will join mixed-species flocks to follow army of ants.

Conservation

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

In South America, besides the Amazon Basin, the Guianas and the Guiana Shield, the Cocoa Thrush ranges into two areas. A medium sized disjunct population lives on southeast coastal Brazil; the narrow coastal range is 300 km wide and extends from Alagoas state in the north to southern Rio de Janeiro state, about 2300 km. Another range for the species is in northeast Colombia and southwest Venezuela. It covers parts of the headwaters of the Caribbean-flowing Orinoco River drainage, and adjacent Amazonian headwaters to the Rio Negro flowing southeast into the Amazon’s northwest quadrant. This Colombian-Venezuelan range extends to the coast, and is coastal along northern Venezuela, as it is an extension of the range from the Guianas, (western Guyana).

Cocoa Thrush status Least Concern

Migration

Sedentary throughout range.

Distribution map

Cocoa Thrush distribution range map

About the author

admin

Permanent link to this article: http://www.planetofbirds.com/passeriformes-turdidae-cocoa-thrush-turdus-fumigatus-2

Leave a Reply