Marmoras Warbler (Sylvia sarda)

Marmoras Warbler

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Sylviidae | [latin] Sylvia sarda | [UK] Marmoras Warbler | [FR] Fauvette sarde | [DE] Sarden-Grasmucke | [ES] Curruca Sarda | [NL] Sardijnse Grasmus

Subspecies

Monotypic species

Physical charateristics

12 cm; wing-span 13-17.5 cm; tail 4-5 cm. Close in size to Dartford Warbler but with 5-10% shorter tail (and thus less attenuated form). Small warbler, with spiky bill, high crown, short wings, and long tail; often has perky stance with weight forward. Plumage essentially dull blue-grey in (, browner below in ) and browner below and above in juvenile. Eye of adult ochre to red; eye-ring orange to red; bill base strikingly pink to orange. One call distinctive.

Listen to the sound of Marmoras Warbler

[audio:http://www.aviflevoland.nl/sounddb/M/Marmoras Warbler.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 13 cm wingspan max.: 17 cm
size min.: 12 cm size max.: 13 cm
incubation min.: 12 days incubation max.: 15 days
fledging min.: 12 days fledging max.: 15 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 3  
      eggs max.: 5  

Range

Eurasia : Southwest

Habitat

Breeds strictly within Mediterranean coastal and island areas, in warm situations with average July temperatures up to 24-26 degrees C and relatively frost-free winters. Ascends to 400-500 m on Mallorca, on hillsides and mountains up to nearly 1000 m on Corsica. Prefers fairly uniform low cover, below height attractive to competitors, especially Dartford Warbler and Sardinian Warbler, as also Stonechat, all of which at times overlap with it. Mainly concentrated on parts of heathland (garigue) with much heath, palmetto or dwarf fan palm, and some grass (usually maintained as a result of poor soil, exposure, or fire) on islets and coastal slopes or hillsides, such areas occasionally being already invaded by scattered trees.

Reproduction

On the Balearic Islands: eggs laid late March to early June. Corsica: eggs laid (mid-)late April to early July. 2 broods, perhaps occasionally 3. Nest is built in low scrub; 90-120 cm above ground, exceptionally to 190 cm. Nest: well-constructed and substantial cup, often with thickened rim, of dry grasses, stems, and leaves, often with vegetable down and sometimes wool, bits of bark, and spiders? webs and cocoons; lined with finer material including grass, roots, hair, plant down, and occasionally a few feathers.
Eggs are sub-elliptical to short subelliptical, smooth and slightly glossy; white or grey-white, with buff to red-brown and grey spots often concentrated at broad end, or sometimes with heavy red-brown blotching and lighter grey and brown speckles. Clutch: 3-4 eggs incubated 12-15 days. Young flegde after about 12 days.

Feeding habits

Chiefly small arthropods. Feeds mainly in low vegetation and on ground; also occasionally in trees and higher shrubs, not uncommonly sallying for insects like flycatcher.

Conservation

This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Sylvia sarda breeds only in Europe, where it is confined to the islands and islets of the
western Mediterranean notably Corsica, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. Its
breeding population is relatively small (<75,000 pairs), but increased between 1970- 1990. Trends were not available for the Spanish and French populations during 1990- 2000, but the Italian population was stable, and the species is provisionally evaluated as Secure.
Marmoras Warbler status Least Concern

Migration

Corsican and Sardinian populations partially migratory, many birds remaining within breeding range all year; populations of Balearic Islands mostly sedentary. Passage to and wintering in north-west Africa reported mostly November-March. Occasional reports north of breeding areas are presumably vagrants or overshooting spring migrants.

Distribution map

Marmoras Warbler distribution range map

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