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Red-whiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus)

Red-whiskered Bulbul

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Pycnonotidae | [latin] Pycnonotus jocosus | [UK] Red-whiskered Bulbul | [FR] Bulbul orphee | [DE] Rotohr-Bulbul | [ES] Bulbul de bigotes rojos | [NL] Roodoorbuulbuul

Subspecies

Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range
Pycnonotus jocosus OR widespread
Pycnonotus jocosus abuensis
Pycnonotus jocosus emeria
Pycnonotus jocosus fuscicaudatus
Pycnonotus jocosus jocosus
Pycnonotus jocosus monticola
Pycnonotus jocosus pattani
Pycnonotus jocosus pyrrhotis
Pycnonotus jocosus whistleri

Physical charateristics

Note the black crest, red cheek patch, and red undertail coverts.

Listen to the sound of Red-whiskered Bulbul

[audio:http://www.aviflevoland.nl/sounddb/R/Red-whiskered Bulbul.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 25 cm wingspan max.: 28 cm
size min.: 18 cm size max.: 20 cm
incubation min.: 12 days incubation max.: 14 days
fledging min.: 14 days fledging max.: 18 days
broods: 2   eggs min.: 2  
      eggs max.: 4  

Range

Oriental Region : widespread

Habitat

Suburbs with plantings of exotic fruiting trees. Introduced in North America, fou
nd only in residential areas with wide variety of exotic trees and shrubs that provide berries and small fruits at all times of year. In native range in southern Asia, found in forest edges, semi-open areas, towns.

Reproduction

In Florida, breeding season is mainly February to June. Florida birds seem not to defend territories strongly, often tolerating other bulbuls near the nest. In courtship display, one bird may approach the other, fluttering its wings an
d bowing; both birds raise and lower crests repeatedly.
Nest: Site is usually fairly low in shrub, vine, or small tree, typically about 2-
8′ above the ground, often well concealed. Nest, placed in fork of branch, is a cup made of grass, weeds, rootlets, and casuarina needles. Outside of nest usually decorated with pieces of paper or plastic, large flakes of bark, or other debris.
Eggs: Usually 3. Pinkish, profusely mottled with purple or reddish spots. Incubation is by both parents, 12-14 days.
Young: Both parents feed nestlings. Age of young at first flight not well known.

Feeding habits

Berries, small fruits, insects.
Because of its small bill, usually does not feed on large fruits until they are overripe or punctured by other birds. Important items in Florida include berries and fruits of Brazilian pepper, figs, lantana, jasmine, and others. Takes nectar, eats
pieces of flowers and green shoots of vegetation. Also eats many insects.
Behavior: Except when nesting, travels in flocks to feed at fruiting plants. Takes insects by flying out to capture them in midair, hovering to pick them from bark, or searching among foliage.

Conservation

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Red-whiskered Bulbul status Least Concern

Migration

Southeast Asia. Established locally in southern Miami, Florida. Migration: Apparently permanent resident throughout its native range, and introduced populations seem to do very little wandering.

Distribution map

Red-whiskered Bulbul distribution range map

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