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Jun 08 2011

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Eastern Bonellis Warbler (Phylloscopus orientalis)

Eastern Bonellis Warbler

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Phylloscopidae | [latin] Phylloscopus orientalis | [UK] Eastern Bonellis Warbler | [FR] Casiorne a dos brun | [DE] Balkanlaubsanger | [ES] Mosquitero Papialbo | [NL] Balkanbergfluiter

Subspecies

Monotypic species

Physical charateristics

Somewhat longer-winged than Bonelli?s Warbler but otherwise size and structure similar. Plumage differs from Bonelli?s Warbler in greyer or dirtier tone to upperparts, more contrasting yellowish-white edges to tertials (when fresh) but conversely less markedly green edges to wing-coverts and flight feathers (not forming often striking, broad panel of Bonelli?s Warbler).

Listen to the sound of Eastern Bonellis Warbler

[audio:http://www.aviflevoland.nl/sounddb/E/Eastern Bonellis Warbler.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 16 cm wingspan max.: 20 cm
size min.: 10 cm size max.: 12 cm
incubation min.: 12 days incubation max.: 13 days
fledging min.: 12 days fledging max.: 13 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 4  
      eggs max.: 7  

Range

Eurasia : Southcentral

Habitat

Apparently no different from Mediterranean populations of Bonelli?s Warbler; slopes and hills of maquis, pine and oak scrub, and open woodland with some undergrowth, from just above sea-level up to c. 1800 m in Greece and Turkey.

Reproduction

Egg laying mid May in Greece. Nest site is on ground, under overhanging vegetation, often in slight hollow in ground or bank. Nest is a domed structure with side entrance, largely of grass, with small amounts of leaves and moss, lined with finer material including some hair. 5-6 eggs are laid, incubation 12-13 says, by female only.

Feeding habits

Insects and a few other invertebrates. Feeding methods much as in other Phylloscopus. Most foraging done in tree crown, frequently on outermost branches and twigs.

Conservation

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 1,000,000-10,000,000 km2. It has a large global population, including an estimated 2,700,000-6,900,000 individuals in Europe (BirdLife International in prep.). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Breeds only in west Palearctic, mainly Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece. Slight increase in range. Vagrant to Britain and the Netherlands.

Migration

Migratory; winters separately from Bonelli?s Warbler in north-east Africa (Sudan and Ethiopia), some perhaps further west. On migration, much less common autumn than spring on Malta and Cyprus, and between Libya and Syria (though apparently difference less pronounced in Egypt). In autumn, presumed this species conspicuous at Bosporus, western Turkey, mainly late July, and further south in Turkey last records early October. Scarce and irregular in Israel and Cyprus mainly August to early October (July to end of October); late migrants in Egypt towards end of November. Present in Sudan from end of August. Leaves winter quarters from late February, passing through Egypt and Israel principally mid-March to mid-May, and first birds arrive back on breeding grounds in southern Greece and western Turkey around beginning of April. Rare vagrant to western Europe.

Distribution map

Eastern Bonellis Warbler distribution range map

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