Sombre Tit (Parus lugubris)

Sombre Tit

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Paridae | [latin] Parus lugubris | [UK] Sombre Tit | [FR] Mesange lugubre | [DE] Trauermeise | [ES] Carbonero lugubre | [NL] Rouwmees

Subspecies

Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range
Poecile lugubris EU sc
Poecile lugubris anatoliae
Poecile lugubris dubius
Poecile lugubris hyrcanus
Poecile lugubris kirmanensis
Poecile lugubris lugens
Poecile lugubris lugubris

Physical charateristics

Medium-sized to large, bulky tit, with strong bill, broad head, and rather dull plumage similar in pattern to P. montanus. Deep and long cap and large bib covering chin and whole of throat sooty-black, duller in tone. Cheek, ear-coverts, and side of neck under rear of cap white, sullied near neck.
Upperparts basically ashy-brown, tone strongest on flight and tail-feathers. Wings show greyer margins and tips on larger coverts and distinct greyish-white fringes to tertials and inner secondaries. Underparts dull cream-white, side of breast and fore-flank washed pale ashy-brown to grey, rear flank washed buff.
Sexes similar, no seasonal variation.

Listen to the sound of Sombre Tit

[audio:http://www.aviflevoland.nl/sounddb/S/Sombre Tit.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

wingspan min.: 16 cm wingspan max.: 17 cm
size min.: 12 cm size max.: 13 cm
incubation min.: 12 days incubation max.: 13 days
fledging min.: 21 days fledging max.: 13 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 5  
      eggs max.: 10  

Range

Eurasia : Southcentral

Habitat

Most southerly tit breeding in west Palearctic, in warm continental middle and lower latitudes, mainly Mediterranean but also montane. Inhabits open forests of oak, beech, and even dark conifers, riverside willow and poplar, orchards, and vineyards.

Reproduction

Egg laying starts from March in most of European range, in extreme north-west in first half of April. Nest site is a hole in tree or, apparently less often, in rocks. Nest is a cup of plant material and wool, lined with feathers. 5-7 eggs incubated for 13-14 days, by female alone.

Feeding habits

Mainly small invertebrates, especially caterpillars and other larvae. Occasionally seeds. Forages readily on ground, among rocks or leaves, but always flies up to nearest perch with food item. Often feeds on seed-heads of herbs.

Conservation

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 100,000-1,000,000 km2. It has a large global population estimated to be 260,000-1,000,000 individuals (Harrap and Quinn 1996). Global population trends have not been quantified, but populations appear to be stable (Snow and Perrins 1998) so the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Parus lugubris is a resident across much of south-eastern Europe, which constitutes
>75% of its global range. Its European breeding population is large (>450,000 pairs),
and was stable between 1970-1990. Although there was a marked decline in the small
Croatian population during 1990-2000, populations were stable (or increasing) across
the rest of its European range?including in the Turkish stronghold?and the species
probably remained stable overall.
Sombre Tit status Least Concern

Migration

Resident and, over most of range, sedentary, though moves about in mixed-species flocks in winter, 1st-years especially. A few autumn and winter records in central Turkey where it does not breed, and recorded in autumn in foothills of Zagros mountains of north-east Iraq, just beyond known breeding range.

Distribution map

Sombre Tit distribution range map

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