Siberian Tit (Poecile cinctus)

Siberian Tit

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Paridae | [latin] Poecile cinctus | [UK] Siberian Tit | [FR] Mesange lapone | [DE] Lapplandmeise | [ES] Carbonero lapon | [NL] Bruinkopmees

Subspecies

Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range

Physical charateristics

Slightly shorter overall than Great Tit, noticeably larger and much longer-tailed than Willow Tit, though with similar proportions of head and body. Rather large, long, bulky, and often fluffy tit, with plumage pattern basically like black-capped species but with dusky-brown crown and nape and much warmer buff-brown back and flank.

Listen to the sound of Siberian Tit

[audio:http://www.aviflevoland.nl/sounddb/S/Siberian Tit.mp3]

Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto

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Range

Eurasia : North, also Northwest NA

Habitat

In west Palearctic sector of extensive range, inhabits high latitudes with cool boreal climate up to July isotherm of 10 degrees C in high coniferous taiga, but also occurs in broad-leaved trees along banks of rivers running through coniferous forest. In winter in arctic Lapland, wanders over wide area of forest of pine and spruce at lower altitudes, contrasting with Willow Tit in not being a bird of birch forest. Will range beyond taiga into stunted forest, but becomes rare near northern forest limits, and remains at all times arboreal. Independent of man except locally where making use of refuse, and in very severe weather north of the arctic circle coming into small towns where food is supplied.

Reproduction

In Finland laying may begin early May, but usually late May, extending to early June. The breeding season in Norway and Russia similar, one brood only. Nest is a hole in tree (conifer, birch, aspen), often decaying stump, natural cavity or old hole of woodpecker, 0.3-5 m above ground. The cavity is often cleaned out and rotten wood removed. Also uses nest-boxes. Nest is typically of 3 layers, with base of decayed wood (including nests in nest-boxes), below variable amount of moss or grass (amount adjusted to size of cavity) and thick cup of hair. Clutch size: 6-10 (4-11) eggs which are incubated 15-18 days, the young fledge after 19-20 days.

Feeding habits

Small invertebrates and seeds; in winter also feeds at refuse tips and bird tables. Food stored throughout year at tips of twigs in needles, in crevices on branch or trunk, in clumps of lichen. Items stored all over territory, usually 3-4 items at each site, and each site used once only. Most activity takes place April-May (mainly caterpillars plus some seeds from opening cones) and August-November (insects, caterpillars, and spiders, which are killed before storage). Stores hardly exploited outside winter. Apparently each bird finds own store.

Conservation

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 10,000,000 km2. It has a large global population estimated to be 500,000-5,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2003). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Parus cinctus is a widespread resident in the boreal zone of Fennoscandia and Russia,
with Europe accounting for less than a quarter of its global range. Its European
breeding population is large (>870,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990.
Although the Swedish population declined during 1990-2000 and the trend of the
stronghold population in Russia was unknown, the species was stable in Norway
and Finland, and there is no evidence to suggest that it declined overall.

Migration

Chiefly sedentary and to some extent nomadic outside breeding season. More extensive movements southwards, especially of juveniles, recorded for some populations when numbers high.

Distribution map

Siberian Tit distribution range map

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