|Genus||Species||subspecies||Breeding Range||Breeding Range 2||Non Breeding Range|
Listen to the sound of Golden-Oriole
Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto
|wingspan min.:||45||cm||wingspan max.:||47||cm|
|size min.:||23||cm||size max.:||25||cm|
|incubation min.:||16||days||incubation max.:||18||days|
|fledging min.:||17||days||fledging max.:||18||days|
Nature and structure of undergrowth, sward, or herbage immaterial, as lower vegetation and ground surface are little visited.
Young fledge after 16-17(-20) days.
Note, however, that bathing behaviour involves flights over water, and will drink in flight like Swallow, otherwise drinks by sucking
Oriolus oriolus is a widespread summer visitor to much of Europe, which accounts
for less than half of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is
very large (>3,400,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although there
were declines in a number of countries?notably France and Turkey?during 1990-
2000, the vast majority of populations in the east of its European range, including
key ones in Russia and Romania, were stable, and the species declined only slightly
Movement chiefly nocturnal; some diurnal movements noted, especially in spring; passage concentrated, with dates varying little from year to year; apparently migrates regularly through mountains, e.g. Carpathians and Swiss Alps.
In autumn, heading within Europe ranges between south and east, with many recoveries in north-east and south-east Italy east to western Turkey of birds ringed western France east to Hungary; from Mediterranean, change to more southward direction required to reach winter quarters. Autumn passage regular throughout north-east Africa and as far west as Tunisia. Spring passage extends further west than autumn, indicating loop migration for many birds: widespread in central and northern Algerian Sahara, and conspicuous in North Africa west to eastern Morocco. In Mediterranean area south of 42 degrees N, all autumn recoveries are east of 17 degrees E, all spring recoveries west of 19 degrees E. Probably a migratory divide between France and Iberia: evidence suggests Iberian and north-west African birds move west of south, presumably mostly in non-stop flight, to winter quarters as yet undiscovered, perhaps south-east of Senegal in Guinea area. Autumn passage regular in small numbers at Strait of Gibraltar.
Autumn migration begins early, with most breeding areas vacated late July to August. Regular on passage throughout Switzerland mid-July to mid-September, and passage in Camargue ends mid-September. Many stop over in Mediterranean to build up fat reserves, feeding on fruit. First birds reach North Africa in August, with main passage September-October. Present in Cameroon and Central African Republic from October, and main arrival in East Africa October. Spring migration is late; vacates winter quarters March-April, and returns to breeding grounds late April to May, when trees in leaf.