Brown Flycatcher (Muscicapa dauurica)

Brown Flycatcher

[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Muscicapidae | [latin] Muscicapa dauurica | [UK] Brown Flycatcher | [FR] Gobe-mouches brun | [DE] Braunschnapper | [ES] Papamoscas Castano | [NL] Bruine Vliegenvanger

Subspecies

Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range

Physical charateristics

Noticeably smaller and more compact than Spotted Flycatcher, with proportionately larger bill, 20% shorter wings (extending little beyond end of upper tail-coverts), and 25% shorter tail; close in size to Red-breasted Flycatcher but with flatter head, slightly longer wings, and slightly shorter tail and legs evident in rather dumpier, less sprite-like form. 2nd smallest flycatcher of west Palearctic, with form and appearance intermediate between Spotted Flycatcher and ) or immature Ficedula flycatchers. No striking characters except for rather large dark eye offset by off-white loral stripe and eye-ring; at close range narrow dark malar stripe and pale yellowish base to lower mandible may show. Upperparts generally grey rather than brown in tone; underparts dull white, clouded or mottled on breast and flank; at close range, wings show pale fringes in pattern like Spotted Flycatcher, with pale tips to greater coverts forming obvious wing-bar in first winter plumage.
Perched on the roof, it utters its song strongly, fluffing its breast feathers, with the head backwards in the last phrase of its song. Farther, another bird responds immediately.
Black redstart sings from a high perch, above the city noise and early in the morning. It often perches on exposed places, standing up and moving its tail nervously. It looks at the ground where it often alights to catch insects, but it also catches flying insects.

wingspan min.: 19 cm wingspan max.: 21 cm
size min.: 11 cm size max.: 12 cm
incubation min.: 0 days incubation max.: 0 days
fledging min.: 0 days fledging max.: 0 days
broods: 1   eggs min.: 3  
      eggs max.: 4  

Range

Eurasia, Oriental Region : Central, East Asia to Southeast Asia, Borneo, and India

Habitat

Breeds in east Palearctic middle latitudes in continental climate, largely in lowlands. Generally prefers mature deciduous trees, sometimes mixed with occasional conifers, and everywhere chooses least dense stands, with good undergrowth, near forest edge or by glades, clearings, or road verges.

Reproduction

Four to five olive gray eggs are laid in a cup nest made of lichen, moss, and grasses and lined with finer materials. Nest is built by the female and placed on a tree branch or set in fork of a tree. Incubation ranges from 11 to 13 days and is carried out by the female. Young are fed by both sexes. These birds have one brood per year.

Feeding habits

Feeds mostly on insects. Perches on an open exposed tree branch perch, immobile and erect, until it spots prey; then flies out to catch it in flight and returns to its perch to eat. Sometimes flicks its wings while hunting

Conservation

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Breeds in southern Siberia from Yenisey east to Transbaykalia, northern Mongolia, Ussuriland, Manchuria, Sakhalin, northern Korea, Japan, and Kuril Islands, also India. Winters in China, Philippines, Burma, Indochina, Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, India, and Sri Lanka.
Accidental in West Germany, 1982. Denmark, 1959. Sweden, 1986. Not globally threatened.
Brown Flycatcher status Least Concern

Migration

Varies between migratory and resident across range. Northern populations long-distance migrants, arriving on breeding grounds May to early June, departing south from mid- or late August.

Distribution map

Brown Flycatcher distribution range map

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