Black-eared Wheatear (Oenanthe hispanica)
[order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Muscicapidae | [latin] Oenanthe hispanica | [UK] Black-eared Wheatear | [FR] Traquet oreillard | [DE] Mittelmeer-Steinschmatzer | [ES] Collalba rubia | [NL] Blonde Tapuit
Rather slim elegant wheatear, with long, conspicuous tail giving slimmer, lengthier outline than most others of similar plumage. Rump and tail pattern basically as Northern Wheatear but black terminal band less uniformly broad, though more black long outer edge than in any other wheatear.
Spring male has wholly or partly black scapulars and wings more obviously divided by pale back and white rump and tail than any other wheatear.
Female has stronger pattern than many female wheatears, having black wings contrasting boldly with sandy back and chest. Black under wing-coverts striking, particularly in western race which has paler undersurface to flight-feathers than eastern one.
Sexes markedly dissimilar in spring, less so in autumn.
Listen to the sound of Black-eared Wheatear
Eurasia : Southwest
Breeds at lower middle latitudes in warm mainly continental Mediterranean and steppe regions. Inhabiting steppes with rocky outcrops or stony hillocks and slopes, and cliff-like river banks. More generally in open or lightly wooded arid county, also on warm rocky lowlands and stony ground, limestone hills, slopes with debris, dry river valleys, dry and stony fields, Mediterranean heaths with oaks, vineyards with stone banks, and dry cultivations.
April-June in Algeria and Tunisia, April-May in Spain, early May in Greece and late April in Armenia. Nest site is on ground in shallow hole, under stone, in thick vegetation, or at base of dense bush. Nest is a cup of grass and moss, lined with finer material including hair. 4-5 eggs, incubation 13-14 days tended by female only.
Almost entirely insects. Taken mainly from bare ground or short vegetation. Usually watches for prey from perch.
Light weight allows it to perch on flimsy vegetation unusable by other heavier Oenanthe. Birds also make short flights from perches and catch prey in flight like flycatcher.
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Migratory. Winters in semi-desert and Acacia savanna belt across northern tropical Africa from S