|Genus||Species||subspecies||Breeding Range||Breeding Range 2||Non Breeding Range|
Plumage pattern typical of small pipits but differs subtly from typical Meadow Pipit and Red-throated Pipit in combination of noticeably pale eye-ring, warm but not rufous upperparts, striking wing-bars, yellow-buff, boldly spotted breast, and little-streaked flanks.
At close range, quite large bill, noticeably pink legs and short hind claw are useful characters. Sexes similar, little seasonal variation.
Listen to the sound of Tree Pipit
Copyright remark: Most sounds derived from xeno-canto
|wingspan min.:||25||cm||wingspan max.:||27||cm|
|size min.:||14||cm||size max.:||16||cm|
|incubation min.:||12||days||incubation max.:||14||days|
|fledging min.:||12||days||fledging max.:||14||days|
Mainly in continental but spreading marginally into oceanic climates, but avoiding more exposed windy and wet as well as torrid and arid conditions.
Like congeners, basically a ground-feeder and ground-nester, but unique among them in west Palearctic in attachment to trees and bushes as look-outs and song-posts, no less essential in breeding territory than suitable foraging terrain and nest-sites.
Accordingly shuns both open treeless and shrubless habitats and those where density of woody vegetation leaves insufficient open low herbage accessible.
2-6 eggs which are Incubated 12-14 days by female only.
Occasionally takes insects after short aerial pursuit from ground.
Anthus trivialis is a widespread summer visitor to most of Europe, which accounts
for less than half of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is
extremely large (>27,000,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although
there were declines in parts of western Europe and Fennoscandia (notably Sweden)
during 1990-2000, most populations to the east?including the key one in Russia?
were stable or increased, and the species underwent only a small decline overall.
In autumn, all populations breeding west and those from Finland and even from north-west Russia move between south-west and just west of south into western Mediterranean basin and to Portugal, and thence into Africa. Northward passage in spring on a broad front. Higher proportion of birds overfly Mediterranean area in autumn than in spring.
Leaves north European Russia September to early October.
Autumn passage through Switzerland occurs late July to late October; at Gibraltar, autumn exodus from end of August to late September with continuance on minor scale until 3rd week of October. In southern African winter quarters, present late October-March. Northward passage begins March, with main movement through Mediterranean area in April and arrival on breeding grounds from early April to late May in north.