ANTI-PREDATORY BEHAVIOR OF LAPWINGS: FIELD EVIDENCE OF DISCRIMINATIVE ABILITIES

Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) Science Article 13

abstract

The responses of three species of lapwings (Charadriidae: Vanellus spp.) to various potential predators and physically similar non-predators were recorded in the field in Kenya and Venezuela to determine how responses varied with stimulus and context of encounter

JEFFREY R. WALTERS, Wilson Bull., 102(l), 1990, pp. 49-70

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