Laughing Gull (Leucophaeus atricilla) Science Article 4
Disturbance can reduce productivity by disrupting nesting behavior. We examined responses of nesting Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) to frequent overhead flights by Herring (L. argentutus) and Great Black-backed (L. murinus) gulls to determine if such flyovers may have contributed to declines in productivity.
PAUL M. CAVANAGH AND CURTICE R. GRIFFIN, Wilson Bull., 105(2), 1993, pp. 333-338