Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) Science Article 18
Two Cormorant colonies in The Netherlands (Naardermeer and Oostvaardersplassen), exploiting the same water bodies but situated at different distances from them, were compared with respect to daily variations in exact fishing sites and corresponding variations in time budget and fish consumption. Mean flying distances between colony and fishing site were estimated at 22 and 15 km respectively. Birds from the Naardermeer colony carried out less trips but of a longer duration than birds from Oostvaardersplassen, most markedly so in the chick rearing period (2 trips per day of 185 min vs. 3 trips of 165 min). Daily fluctuations in time spent away from the colony were clearly dependent on daily shifts in main fishing sites. On days when fishing was concentrated at larger distances, individual foraging trips lasted longer, due to the increase in flying time. Neither net fishing time nor daily fish consumption, as estimated by pellet analyses, compensated for the increment in time and energy expenditure on those days. It was estimated that the average daily energy expenditure would amount to about 2.8 cntdot BMR (basal metabolic rate) in birds from Naardermeerr and to about 2.7 cntdot BMR in birds from Oostvaardersplassen.
Platteeuw M. & Van Eerden M.R., ARDEA 83 (1): 223-234