Dusky-throated Antshrike (Thamnomanes ardesiacus) Science Article 1
The external morphology of a bird is a reflection of two factors: phylogeny and adaptations to the environment. Traditionally birds have been classified by systematists on the basis of similarities in morphology, especially at lower taxonomic ranks. Ecologists frequently study the same morphological characters used by systematists (e.g., Hespenheide 1973, Karr and James 1975, Ricklefs and Cox 1977). When taxa are arranged on the basis of characters influenced by ecological adaptations, are the resulting classifications reflections of Ecological similarity, phylogeny, or both?
THOMAS S. SCHULENBERG, Wilson. Bull., 95(4), 1983, pp. 505-521