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Jun 08 2011

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White-winged Dove (Zenaida asiatica)

White-winged Dove

[order] COLUMBIFORMES | [family] Columbidae | [latin] Zenaida asiatica | [UK] White-winged Dove | [FR] Colombe a ailes blanches | [DE] Weissflugel-Taube | [ES] Paloma de Alas Blancas (Cl), Zenaida Aliblanca, Paloma Aliblanca (Cr), Tortola Aliblanca, Paloma Aliblanca (HN) | [NL] Witvleugeltreurduif

Subspecies

Genus Species subspecies Breeding Range Breeding Range 2 Non Breeding Range
Zenaida asiatica NA, MA sw USA to Panama, also Greater Antilles
Zenaida asiatica asiatica s USA to Nicaragua, West Indies
Zenaida asiatica australis W Costa Rica, w Panama
Zenaida asiatica mearnsi sw USA, w Mexico

Physical charateristics

A dove of the desert, readily known by the large white wing patches. Otherwise similar to the Mourning Dove, but tail rounded and tipped with broad white corners.

Listen to the sound of White-winged Dove

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wingspan min.: 43 cm wingspan max.: 46 cm
size min.: 28 cm size max.: 30 cm
incubation min.: 15 days incubation max.: 20 days
fledging min.: 13 days fledging max.: 18 days
broods: 2   eggs min.: 1  
      eggs max.: 3  

Range

North America, Middle America : Southwest USA to Panama, also Greater Antilles

Habitat

River woods, mesquites, saguaros, groves, towns.
Found in a variety of semi-open habitats in the Southwest, including native brushlands in Texas and deserts farther west, plus chaparral and open oak woods; also adapts quickly to altered habitats, such as farmland, suburbs, citrus groves, plantings of t
rees in grassland. In winter, those remaining north of Mexico are mostly in towns.

Reproduction

May nest in colonies. In courtship display, male flaps up and then glides down in wide circle. Both members of pair go through ritualized nodding and preening motions.
Nest: Site is in shrub, tree, or cactus, usually 4-
30′ above ground. Placed on horizontal limb or fork, sometimes on top of old nest or on tangle of thorns. Nest is a flimsy platform of sticks. Male brings most material, female builds.
Eggs: 2, sometimes 1-4. White to very pale buff. Incubation is by both parents, 13-14 days.
Young: Fed by both parents. The c
rop (enlarged area of upper esophagus) in adults secretes “pigeon milk”; young consume this alone for first few days, then increasing numbers of seeds mixed into food regurgitated by parent. Young leave nest at about 13-
16 days, are fed by parents for some time thereafter. 2-3 broods per year.

Feeding habits

Mostly seeds, some fruits and berries.
Feeds on seeds of many wild plants, also some cultivated grains; may eat acorns where available. Feeds on fruits, especially those of cactus, also smaller berries. Will come to large flowers, apparently for nectar.
Behavior:
Forages mostly on ground, also up in trees, shrubs, cactus. Often seen at top of giant saguaro cactus, feeding on fruit or flowers (may get much of its water that way in desert areas). Regularly swallows grit (small gravel) to aid in digestion of hard se
eds.

Conservation

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
White-winged Dove status Least Concern

Migration

Southwestern United States to northern Chile.
Migration: Most of those nesting in Southwest depart in fall. A few remain through winter north of the border, especially in suburban areas. Strays sometimes wande
r far north. Regular along Gulf Coast in winter. Florida birds mostly permanent residents.

Distribution map

White-winged Dove distribution range map

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