Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) Science Article 19
Five variables were studied relating to the emergence of sociality in hand-reared cowbirds (Molothrus ater): proximity, sex assortment, reactions to adults, head-down displays, and vocalizations. The authors were especially interested in female sociality because adult female birds influence male courtship, song content, and use through proximity, attention, and displays. The authors found that young female birds failed to show same-sex affiliation typical of the species at any point in the study.
Jennifer L. Miller and S. Grace Freed-Brown, Journal of Comparative Psychology 2006, Vol. 120, No. 3, 229-238