Blue-headed Macaw (Primolius couloni) Science Article 1
Until recently thought to be secure (i.e. Least Concern), the Blue-headed Macaw is now classified as Endangered in the IUCN Red List, based on an apparent decline and a population estimate of <2500 mature individuals. We review published and unpublished sources, collating records from 61 localities in Peru, Brazil and Bolivia, and compiling information on habitat use, seasonality, group size, demography, and population density. We find the species to be associated with disturbed habitats at one site, but a broader analysis revealed no significant associations with forest type, riverine habitats, degree of disturbance or altitude. By mapping locality records, and accounting for discontinuities, we calculate an Extent of Occurrence of 460,000 km2. Range-wide data on encounter rates and flock sizes suggest that the species is sedentary and gregarious, with an overall population density of one mature individual per 10?50 km2.
Joseph A. Tobias et all, BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION 139 (2007 ) 126-138