Field metabolic rates of Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla during incubation and chick rearing.

Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) Science Article 7

abstract

We used doubly labelled water to study the field metabolic rates of breeding Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla during the incubation phase, and to compare these with the metabolic rates of Kittiwakes rearing chicks. During the incubation phase, birds with two eggs spent an average (

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