American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) Science Article 9
The territorial behavior of the American Redstart (Setoph_a rz~ticilla) has been studied by Hickey (1940)) and in greater detail by Ficken (1962). Hickey has described this species as being ‘highly territorial,’ defending an area by song and formalized displays. Ficken has described the territory as being maintained during the breeding season with both sexesusually remaining completely within it ; the male defends the area against other male redstarts.
ROY A. ICKES AND MILLICENT S. FICKEN, THE WILSON BULLETIN, Vol. 82. No. 2, June 1970